• Technical Help
  • Why are some PDFs displayed incorrectly?
    There are bugs in PDFKit for macOS that can cause cosmetic artifacts in the display of large PDFs when they are zoomed. If you encounter this, you can make the PDF render properly by changing the display to "Actual Size", or use the "Single Page" or "Two Pages" option (as opposed to "Single Page Continuous" or "Two Pages Continuous").
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  • Why do I get an error message when I open the Format Manager or try to use a format?
    One source of such errors is the presence of virus protection software. In particular, Intego Virus Protection and Trend Micro have been reported to cause these errors. If you experience these, try disabling Intego Virus Protection or Trend Micro (or whatever virus protection software you are running) and see if the problem has been resolved. Another way to tell if virus protection software (or any other process) is interfering with Bookends is to reboot in Safe mode (Shift key held down). If the problem resolves, it's almost certainly do to some third party application or utility. Back to top
  • I can't find the user Library folder. Where is it?
    In macOS the user Library folder is hidden by default. To access it, hold down the Option key and use the Finder menu Go -> Library. This will take you to


    and you can follow the trail to

    ~/Library/Application Support/Bookends/

    In Bookends 12, there is a menu option that will take you directly to the Bookends folder in Application Support: Help -> Show Bookends Folder in Finder.

    There you access to various Bookends support files if you ever need them, such as your formats, filters, and Bookends preferences. Back to top
  • Where is my reference library on the hard drive?
    When you create a new library, it is given a name and saved to disk using the standard Save dialog. The default location is in your user Library folder

    ~/Library/Application Support/Bookends/

    Remember that you can access your Library folder by holding down the Option key and selecting the Go menu in the Finder.

    Note that you can always see the full path to your reference library by pressing the Command key and clicking on the file proxy icon in the library window title bar.

    You can also get to the Bookends folder via the Bookends Help menu: Show Bookends Folder in Finder Back to top
  • Where is the User Guide? Where are the tutorials?
    The User Guide, tutorials (pdf and video), and Read Me (version release notes) are available from the Bookends Help menu. Back to top
  • How do I upgrade from one version of Bookends to another?
    That depends on which version of Bookends you are upgrading from. A complete list of possible upgrade avenues, with step-by-step instructions, is provided in the Read Me file in the Bookends Help menu. Back to top
  • When I double click on the .dmg downloaded from Sonny Software, it doesn't open in the Finder. Where is it?
    The dmg may not open as a separate window. Instead, look for it in the Finder window, left pane, under Devices. Back to top
  • Can I scan Word files that have EndNote citations?
    Usually. Follow these steps:

    1) The key is to make sure that the EndNote record number in the citation matches the Bookends unique ID for that reference. To do this, export your EndNote library as XML (requires EndNote 7 or later). Import this into a fresh Bookends library and the EndNote record numbers will now be Bookends unique ID numbers.

    2) Open your document in Microsoft Word and use the EndNote unformat command if the citations were entered with Cite While You Write. All citations should now be visible in their temporary form (for example, surrounded by curly brackets).

    3) Scan the document with Bookends (make sure that the citation delimiters, such as curly brackets, as set in Bookends Preferences are the same as those used by EndNote). Back to top
  • How do I import references from other reference management apps?
    You can export and then import references, often with links to PDFs intact, from applications such as EndNote, Papers, Sente, Zotero, Reference Manager, and Procite. Here are specific instructions. Back to top
  • Bookends isn’t working properly. What do I do?
    Damage to your Bookends library can have unpredictable results. If you are having problems that cannot be reproduced in a fresh Bookends library, it is likely that this is the cause. In this case, the first thing you should do is to rebuild the library (File -> Library Maintenance -> Rebuild). If the problem persists, try to repair your database (File -> Library Maintenance > Repair). If the problem has still not been resolved, contact us for technical support. Back to top
  • Bookends is crashing even after I create a new database.
    A damaged format may be the culprit. If so, changing your default format to one that we supply should fix the problem. If it does, and the damaged format is one of ours, you can download a fresh copy from our ftp server (ftp://www.sonnysoftware.com/pub).

    Another possibility is that the problem is with Bookends preferences. If it is, this will help: go to the folder ~/Library/Application Support/Bookends/ and find the file called "Bookends XX Preferences" (where XX is the version number, such as 12). Move that file to the desktop, and relaunch Bookends. You will be asked for your registration number. Note: you will have to reset any preferences that you changed from the defaults.

    Note: The user Library is not directly accessible from the Finder in Mac OS X 10.7 or later. To access it, hold down the Option key and use the menu Go -> Library in the Finder. Back to top
  • Why isn't scanning/inserting a citation in a Word document working?
    Bookends exchanges information with Word via AppleEvents. There is a bug in Word that sometimes causes it to stop responding to the "paste" AppleEvent, and after a scan or Copy Citation Word comes to the front but the document's text is unchanged (although selected), and no bibliography was added. The immediate solution is to perform a Paste Special yourself: Edit -> Paste Special -> Formatted Text (RTF). The longer term solution is to either relaunch Word (which sometimes works) or reboot your Mac (which usually seems to work).

    Another possibility is that "Proofreading Scan" was checked in the scan dialog. Proofreading scans help you manage temporary citations, they do not replace temporary citations with final citations, and will not generate a bibliography. The User Guide has more information about Proofreading Scans. Back to top
  • How do I merge two libraries?
    There are two ways to do this: (1) Mark all your references, use File -> Export References (Hits) to export them as a "Bookends" file, and then import this file into the destination library, or (2) drag the references from one library window and drop them on another. If you think there may be duplicate references, after the merge choose the menu item Refs -> Remove Duplicates. Back to top
  • Why are text styles (i.e. italics, bold) not showing in my formatted references?
    Check Preferences -> Scan & Bib or Biblio -> Bibliography and make sure the output is set to Styled Text. If it is, then check the bibliography font you are using (the default is in Preferences), and the font used in a reference that is not displaying styled text. Not all fonts have an italic face (Lucida Grande, for example), and in that case only plain text will be output. Back to top
  • Why aren't PDFs added to the watch folder when Bookends isn't running imported?
    When a file is dropped into the watch folder, the Finder records the time and sends a notification to Bookends. Sometimes the folder's metadata becomes corrupted and the time isn't saved and Bookends is not notified when next launched. To correct this, create a new watch folder and point Bookends to it (File -> Import From Watch Folder -> Configure). Add the PDFs to the new folder and they will be imported, as will subsequently added PDFs, even if Bookends was not running when they were placed in the watch folder. Back to top
  • How do I get a format or import filter to show up in the corresponding pop-up menus?
    You must enable the format or import filter by checking it in either the Formats Manager or the Import Filters Manager, respectively. Back to top
  • Where can I get a format for a particular source?
    You can create your own formats by selecting one in the Formats Manager that is similar to the one you want and clicking on the Add button (use Biblio -> Create Format Catalog to see examples of all the formats shipped with Bookends). Create an appropriate name for the new format and make whatever changes are necessary. Details on format design are available in the User Guide. Alternatively, you can ask other Bookends users if they have created such a format and will share it on the Bookends User Forum. If you have altered a format we supply and want to obtain the original, you can download it from our ftp site: ftp://ftp.sonnysoftware.com/pub/Formats/ (sign in as Guest). Back to top
  • License/Purchase Information
  • Should I buy Bookends from Sonny Software or the Mac App Store?
    Buying from Sonny Software has these advantages: (1) you may be eligible for discount pricing, (2) updates will be available sooner, (3) fixes for small bugs that may affect you can be made available immediately in silent updates, (4) some features may be modified or removed in the Mac App Store version due to restrictions enforced by Apple, and (5) Bookends will automatically notify you when updates are available (an example of a feature that was removed from the Mac App Store version).

    Buying from the Mac App Store has these advantages: (1) the initial download and future updates require only one click, and you may prefer obtaining updates for many or all of your apps from a single source, and (2) your order will be filled immediately (orders from us are usually filled several times a day, so there may be a delay of a few hours).

    Note that if you buy from the Mac App Store all subsequent updates must come from the Mac App Store – you will not be able to use versions downloaded from the Sonny Software Web site. Back to top
  • I’d like to buy a license for the people in my group/department/institution. How much will it cost?
    Licenses are available for groups of 5 ($225) and 10 ($325) users. The license belongs to the group and not the individuals therein, so if anyone leaves the group they must buy their own license if they want to continue using Bookends. If you need a license for more than 10 users, or a renewable site license for large groups (50+), please contact Sales for pricing. Back to top
  • I own Bookends—where can I find my registration (serial) number so I can upgrade at the discounted price?
    Your registration number was provided in the e-mail you received when you bought Bookends. If you bought it from Sonny Software, the e-mail was sent from sales@sonnysoftware.com. If you bought the Bookends/Mellel bundle, the e-mail was sent from redlex@redlers.com. If you can't find the e-mail, contact sales@sonnysoftware.com with the name and address you used when you made the purchase and we'll look it up for you. Back to top
  • What methods of payment are accepted?
    Payment may be made by credit card (MasterCard or Visa), PayPal, check, or bank wire transfer. There is no charge for the first three options, but there is a bank fee for a wire transfer that would be added to the cost. You may use the order form on the Sonny Software web site for payment by credit card or PayPal. Contact Sales for details on payment by check or bank wire transfer.

    We can also prepare an invoice for organizations that must use a purchase order process. Contact Sales for questions about purchase orders. Back to top
  • Can I install Bookends on both my desktop and laptop computers with one license?
    Probably. Individual licenses are per user not per computer. That means if you are the only person using a license, you can install it on more than one computer for your own use. Note that you can not run Bookends on more than one computer simultaneously (a single user has no need for this). If more than one person is using Bookends, you need one license for each person (or a group license). Back to top